Careers by Category

Biology (or life science) is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines.

  • Biologist
  • Biomedical engineer
  • Biostatistician
  • Biotechnologist
  • Forensic scientist
  • Geneticist
  • Microbiologist

Built environment refers to the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from personal shelter and buildings to neighbourhoods and cities that can often include their supporting infrastructure, such as water supply or energy networks.

  • Architect
  • Urban and regional planner

The earth sciences (also known as geosciences) may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth. Typically earth scientists will use tools from physics, chemistry, biology, chronology and mathematics to build an understanding of how the earth systems work, and how it evolved to its current state.

  • Astronomer
  • Geographer
  • Geologist
  • Geophysicist
  • Metallurgist
  • Meteorologist
  • Oceanographer
  • Soil and plant scientist

Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realise improvements to the lives of people.

  • Aerodynamicist
  • Aeronautical engineer
  • Cartographer
  • Chemical engineer
  • Civil engineer
  • Electrical engineer
  • Industrial engineer
  • Mechanical engineer
  • Mining engineer
  • Quantity surveyor

These disciplines can focus on clinical practice (treating patients) or academic research. Examples of fields of practice and studies are: anatomy, molecular medicine, physiology, pharmacology, biokinetics and forensic science.

  • Anaesthetist
  • Audiologist
  • Biokineticist
  • Dermatologist
  • Dietician
  • Environmental compliance inspector
  • Gynaecologist
  • Medical physicist
  • Neurologist
  • Occupational health and safety specialist
  • Optometrist
  • Paediatrician
  • Pharmacist
  • Physiotherapist
  • Podiatrist
  • Psychiatrist
  • Psychologist
  • Radiation therapist
  • Radiographer
  • Veterinarian

The natural sciences discover the rules that govern the natural world by using empirical and scientific methods. The term “natural science” is used to distinguish the subject matter from the social sciences, which apply the scientific method to study human behaviour and social patterns; the humanities, which use a critical or analytical approach to study the human condition; and the formal sciences such as mathematics and logic, which use an a priori, as opposed to factual methodology to study formal systems.

Many scientists work in universities or universities of technology where they teach and conduct research. Some are employed by government agencies. Certain scientists work for private industry or in museums. Although their jobs may differ widely, most scientists carry out research at least some of the time. Scientists may work alone but often as part of a research team.

  • Botanist
  • Chemist
  • Physicist
  • Zoologist

Career Paths

Career Qualification Universities
Aerodynamicist
Aerodynamics is the study of air movement when it interacts with a moving object. An aerodynamicist does engineering work, such as designing, constructing and testing aircraft, missiles, and space craft.
BEng Aeronautical Engineering SUN
UP
Wits
Aeronautical engineer
Aeronautical engineers are specialists in planning, designing, developing, manufacturing and testing aeronautical products and systems (such as aircraft, missiles and satellites). Some tasks include:

  • aircraft structural and mechanical design and testing,
  • designing and checking drawings of components,
  • writing service bulletins for aircraft,
  • interpreting oil and vibration analyses,
  • drawing up test specifications and projected costs, and
  • estimating and calculating many technical aspects (such as the fatigue life of structural components).
BEng Aeronautical Engineering SUN
UP
Wits
Anaesthetist 
Anaesthetists (anaesthesiologists) are medical doctors who help patients to lose consciousness (sleep) safely while they are being operated on, or undergoing a medical procedure. Anaesthetists are also responsible for intensive care medicine and pain management. They carefully monitor and maintain the patient’s bodily processes (such as breathing, heartbeat, temperature, and fluid status) throughout the medical procedure, ensure that they return safely to consciousness and observe their recovery from the anaesthetic.
BSc Medical Sciences Including:
SUN
UCT
UFS
UP
Wits
Archaeologist
Archaeology is the study of people of the past. Archaeologists explore how people lived, where they lived, what they ate, and what their environment and culture were like. Archaeologists may be involved in three main areas of work:

  • fieldwork (excavating or digging up an area)
  • laboratory work (cleaning and examining the items found)

interpretation, analysis and writing (taking all the information found at the excavation site, trying to further understand it, using historical information and knowledge of the people of various regions)

Architect
Architects plan, design and decorate buildings and the environment around us (interiors, furnishings and gardens). They design buildings to be strong, convenient and attractive. Architects discuss the requirements and costs of a building project with clients and consult with quantity surveyors, engineers and project managers. They then design sketches, models, project documents and cost estimates. Once the building plans are approved by the authorities, the architect manages and supervises tendering and building processes.
Astronomer
Astronomers use their knowledge of mathematics and physics to study the universe. They research the properties, origins and evolution of astronomical objects and develop ways to explore space.  Most astronomers work in either the observational or theoretical fields of astronomy and some teach Mathematics or Physics at universities. Observational astronomers plan and conduct research involving electromagnetic radiation. Theoretical astronomers develop theories on facets of the universe.  Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties of celestial objects, as well as their interactions and behaviour. Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties of celestial objects, as well as their interactions and behaviour.
BSc Astrophysics UCT
UNISA
Audiologist
Audiologists help people who have hearing, balance, and related ear problems. Using various types of testing equipment, audiologists measure patients’ ability to hear and distinguish between sounds. fit hearing aids and provide auditory training; perform research related to hearing problems; evaluate hearing and speech/language disorders to determine diagnoses and courses of treatment; and administer hearing or speech/language evaluations, tests, or examinations to collect information on the type and degree of impairment, using specialised instruments and electronic equipment.
BSc Audiology

BSc Speech, Language Pathology and Audiology

UCT
UKZN
UL
UP
Wits
Biokineticist
A biokineticist is a specialist therapist in exercise and human movement. Biokineticists identify which exercises are best suited to the individual and assess their fitness and physical capacity for work. They use scientific methods and instruments to assess a person’s physical condition, considering their heart and respiratory systems, posture, muscle and joint strength and flexibility, and speed and co-ordination of movement.
BSc Physiotherapy

BSc Human Movement Science and Physics

SUN
UCT
UFS
UKZN
UL
UP
UV
Wits
Biologist
Their work involves studying humans, plants, animals & the environment. They investigate more about the world by looking at how life begins and develops, as well as the structure and function of life. collecting specimens from the natural environment where the plant, animal or insect lives. These collected specimens are then carefully examined, the findings recorded and finally written up in reports or academic journals. many biologists specialise to a specific field of of study, such as zoology (animal life); botany (plant life); microbiology (microscopic plant and animal life) and entomology (insect life).
BSc Biological Sciences Most universities
Biomedical engineer
Biomedical engineers design medical equipment to diagnose and treat health problems, such as scans and ultrasound machines to see inside the body without surgery. Biomedical engineers study and do research on human biology and how to analyse, improve and adapt medical and computerised equipment and treatment programmes. They use tests to make sure the electronic, electrical and mechanical equipment used to diagnose, treat and monitor patients are safe and effective.
ND Biomedical Technology Most universities of technology
Biostatistician
Biostatisticians are experts in applying statistics to health-related fields. They consult with other researchers to design studies for answering health questions. Biostatisticians use their knowledge of research methods to help plan, choose and carry out the study most useful for answering the questions at hand. They analyse the results of the study and may also use their expertise to design new ways of doing research.
Biotechnologist
Biotechnologists use living cells, the products of cells, and micro-organisms (tiny living things) to make a variety of products and processes that benefit us. Biotechnologists often work in manufacturing; the medical field (curing disease, helping to develop medicines and other treatments); environmental field (finding organisms that can be used in recycling, or which can break down and remove poisons from manufacturing or other waste); or agriculture (working with plants or animals).
Botanist
Botanists are biological scientists who study plants. Their field, botany, is very broad. It encompasses the study of more than 300 000 species of plants. Botanists usually specialise in one type or group of plants, or one approach to the study of plants. Botanists are often classified according to the types of plants that they study. For example, agronomists specialise in the study of agricultural crops and grasses, while marine botanists study plants that grow in the ocean.
Cartographer
A cartographer is involved with the scientific, technological and artistic aspects of developing and producing maps. A cartographer’s role can vary widely; from the technical role of the development, maintenance and manipulation of cartographic databases to the promotion of effective and efficient visualisation of geospatial information, to the design of bespoke maps.
Chemical engineer
Chemical engineers use their knowledge of chemistry to solve practical problems concerned with turning raw materials into valuable products. perform chemical plant design and construction. They may also invent new ways of doing things, and chemical engineers have contributed to the fields of atomic science, manufacturing, mineral processing, paper, dyes, medication, plastics, fertiliser, foods and fuel.
Chemist
A chemist analyses the scientific properties of different types of matter. to create, improve and test products for commercial and research purposes. They may focus on making new products, such as synthetics, paints and pharmaceutical products. They may also be involved in testing and analysing current products to help improve them. Chemists may work in the production industry, deciding how certain materials and chemicals should be handled properly and safely. A chemist often writes instructions for factory workers on which ingredients to mix together, how much of each to use, and how long they should wait for the mixture to be ready to use. Some chemists work as inspectors, testing samples to make sure that they meet the standards set by industry and government.
BSc Chemistry

ND Analytical Chemistry

All universities
Most universities of technology, including
CPUT,
NMMU,
TUT
UJ
VUT
Civil engineer
Civil engineers plan, design, supervise, manage and maintain large construction projects. can specialise in geotechnical work, transportation, construction, structural design, marine engineering, municipal services, hydraulic engineering or project management. Civil engineers consider many issues in the design process, from construction costs and expected lifetime of a project to government regulations and possible environmental difficulties (such as earth tremors). Civil engineering work may also involve research, testing, production or maintenance.
ND Civil Engineering
BEng Civil Engineering
Universities of Technology
and Comprehensive universities
Computer scientist
Computer scientists take a scientific approach to researching and solving complex problems within the field of computing. create innovative ways of tackling challenges in fields such as robotics and artificial intelligence. Designing and building software is another area of work, as is developing new programming languages and working with hardware design. Developing the latest and most effective ways for computers to solve users’ problems.
ND Computer Systems
BSc Computer Science
Most universities of technology; and universities
Computer security specialist
Computer security specialists help businesses, educational institutions, and government organisations to control access to their computer networks and protect important data stored there. implement application access controls, such as password authentication, that keep unauthorised users from accessing a particular computer, network or program. Also known as information security specialists, they take steps to deny hackers access to a system and set up programs that detect hackers who do intrude into a system. They may also be responsible for controlling site-specific physical access to computers.
ND Information Technology
BSc Information Systems
Most universities of technology; and universities
Database administrator
A database is a collection of information that is electronically stored and organised. They work to ensure that this data is handled correctly and that the database is running properly.  need to ensure that data is organised and sorted correctly, and that the information is accurate. They also need to ensure that the data is constantly available and the database is kept running smoothly. In addition to this, the stored details and records should only be accessed by authorised people. Database administration is technical work, which is done at a business’ office site, using computers and database software.
ND Information Technology
BSc Information Systems
ND Computer Systems
BSc Computer Science
Most universities of technology and universities
Dermatologist
Dermatologists are medical doctors who specialise in diagnosing and treating skin diseases and conditions (such as acne, eczema, psoriasis). examine specimens under a microscope, and make various chemical and biological analyses and perform other tests to identify disease-causing organisms or pathological conditions. They prescribe and administer medication, and apply superficial radiotherapy and other localised treatments. A dermatologist also treats abscesses, skin injuries, and other skin infections, and surgically excises cutaneous malignancies, cysts, birthmarks, and other growths.
BSc Medical Sciences Including:
SUN
UCT
UFS
UP
Wits
Dietician
Dietetics is a challenging, varied career for people who are interested in and enjoy both science and working with people. Clinical dieticians manage food service systems for institutions (such as hospitals and schools). Dieticians in food service management positions supervise large-scale planning and preparation of meals in health care facilities, government departments, company cafeterias, prisons, schools, orphanages and homes for the elderly. Therapeutic dieticians plan special diets for people, based on the doctor¿s prescription. Educational dieticians lecture at tertiary learning centres and train catering staff. Community dieticians work for government health authorities, educating people on healthy eating habits and planning nutritional policies and ways to carry out and monitor them. Consulting dieticians work in private practice as consultants to health care facilities, doctors and the public.
BSc Dietetics

ND courses in Food Science/ Food and Nutrition / Food Technology

Including:
SUN
UCT
UFS
UKZN
UL
UP
UWC
CPUT
DUT
TUT
UJ.
Electrical engineer
Electrical engineers design, develop and maintain electrical control systems and/or components to required specifications, focusing on economy, safety, reliability, quality and sustainability.  may be involved at every stage of design and development or may just be involved at one particular stage. The nature of the role varies according to industry or sector, but the range of activities common to many posts is likely to include identifying customer requirements; designing systems and products; reading design specifications and technical drawings; researching suitable solutions and estimating costs and timescales.
BEng Electrical Engineering

ND Electrical Engineering

Most universities of technology and universities
Environmental compliance inspector
They inspect and investigate sources of pollution to protect the public and environment and ensure conformance with provincial and national government regulations and ordinances. may be expected to conduct research on hazardous waste management projects in order to determine the magnitude of problems, or to determine treatment or disposal alternatives and costs. They have to determine the nature of violations and actions to be taken, and issue written notices of violation; participate in enforcement hearings as necessary; and determine which sites and violation reports to investigate. They could also be required to investigate complaints and suspected violations regarding illegal dumping, pollution, pesticides, product quality, or labelling laws; monitor follow-up actions in cases where violations were found, and review compliance monitoring reports. In some cases, they are also responsible for performing laboratory tests on samples collected, such as analyzing the content of contaminated wastewater
ND Environmental Health

BSc Environmental Science

Most universities of technology and universities
Environmental engineer
Environmental engineers design, plan, or perform engineering duties in the prevention, control, and remediation of environmental health hazards, utilising various engineering disciplines. have to prepare, review, and update environmental investigation and recommendation reports. They collaborate with environmental scientists, planners, hazardous waste technicians, engineers, and other specialists, and experts in law and business to address environmental problems. It is also the duty of environmental engineers to obtain, update, and maintain plans, permits, and standard operating procedures. These engineers provide technical-level support for environmental remediation and litigation projects, including remediation system design and determination of regulatory applicability. They also advise corporations and government agencies of procedures to follow in cleaning up contaminated sites to protect people and the environment.
BSc Environmental and Engineering Geology

BSc Environmental Science

Most universities of technology and universities
Environmental scientist
Environmental science is a multidisciplinary field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, zoology, mineralogy, etc.) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. usually specialise in a particular aspect of the environment, such as land conservation, hazardous or toxic waste removal and disposal, groundwater contamination, acid rain, or wildlife preservation. They may do environmental impact studies or design monitoring systems. Others may work with civic groups and political leaders to solve environmental problems in the community. Their work may involve preparing for and attending public hearings or appearing before legislative committees or in court.
BSc Environmental and Engineering Geology

ND Environmental Science

BSc Environmental Science

UP
CPUT
CUT
TUT
UCT
UFS
UKZN
Unisa
UP
UR
UV
Food scientist/technologist
Food scientists use their knowledge of chemistry, physics, engineering, microbiology and biotechnology to find better ways of making and storing food without destroying its nutritional value. analyse food to calculate its nutritional value (such as the information on fat, vitamins, and protein that is found on food packaging) and to check the quality and hygiene of food to make sure that it’s safe to eat. A lot of a food scientist’s work involves research, e.g. looking for less harmful additives to preserve food, and finding ways to improve the flavour, texture and colour of food or enhance ways of preparing food. They may also help to create new methods of packing and storing food, so that it will last longer. Food technologists use the information uncovered by the research of food scientists, and apply this in order to develop new food products.
BSc Food Science

ND Food Technology

Most universities of technology and universities
Forensic scientist
They investigate evidence gathered from a crime scene. Using scientific methods, including an understanding of chemistry and biology, they are able to piece together what happened at a crime scene. has two main roles, namely to analyse evidence and to testify in court. The analysis of evidence typically includes toxicology (examining blood and body fluids for evidence of drugs and poisons); biology (DNA extracted from samples of body fluids and hair); chemistry (examining traces of blood, soil and paint); document examination; weapons; and fingerprinting. Testifying in court includes explaining the results to the judge and legal team, and helping to link this to the suspect in order to assist the law in prosecuting the guilty parties.
BSc Medical Sciences Including:
SUN
UCT
UFS
UP
Wits
Forester
Foresters manage, develop, and protect forest lands and resources. Most foresters perform duties related to the protection and improvement of forest lands. Foresters advise landowners on forestry management techniques and conduct public education programmes on forest care and conservation. They may also participate in environmental studies, prepare environmental reports, patrol forests and enforce laws. Working conditions for foresters vary depending on the kind of work they do.
BSc Forestry and Natural Resources NMMU
SUN
UKZN
UV
Geneticist
Genetics is the study of genes (DNA), heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms. researching the genetic causes and possible gene therapies related to diseases and disorders that result from a single genetic mutation or a combination of genetic traits. Other geneticists focus upon isolating the gene or genes responsible for certain diseases and conditions in which the causes are not fully determined or understood.
BSc Human Genetics UP: a 3-year degree in human physiology, genetics and psychology.
Geographer
Geographers study the relationship between people and the natural environment. Geographers study the way in which humans and the environment interact. They aim to understand how society works and how important the environment is to maintaining and developing life on earth. Most of the key decisions that have to be made in a country like South Africa ¿ decisions about housing, migration, the environment, alternative energy sources, the economy, sustainable urban and rural development and natural disaster management, to name a few ¿ must be informed by geographers.
BSc Geography Most universities;
CPUT
TUT
Geologist
Geologists study the composition, structure and history of the earth. The geologist is an expert in “earth processes.” Generally this is an office job, where the geologist prepares reports and summarises the field work of others. At other times, though, the geologist is a field worker, setting up sampling equipment, taking samples, interpreting the data gleaned from that sampling and measuring, and preparing the reports of the geologist’s own field work. These samples might range from a simple soil test to a test of sample cores taken from the bottom of a tropical ocean or from beneath the polar ice caps. Engineering geologists deal with the technical analysis of the factors related to the earth and also the determination and assessment of various geological hazards, while petroleum geologists are involved in the study of the earth’s crust and finding out traces of oil, petroleum or natural gas.
ND Geology
BSc Geology
Most universities
Geophysicist
Geophysicists study the physical structure and behaviour of the earth using highly sophisticated instruments. Geophysicists often work in the fields of mineral or oil mining, where they look for signs of oil, mineral and gas deposits, without having drill into the earth. They often form part of a team of geologists and engineers, and plan and carry out land and marine surveys. Geophysicists are also often needed to ensure that a land or marine area that is being developed is suitable, and will use similar surveys. However, there are also opportunities for geophysicists outside the mining field. Some geophysicists are involved in seismology, and monitor fault lines, earthquakes and tectonic plate movement. Geophysicists may also work to monitor volcanoes and glaciers, or use their tools to help predict ocean tides and currents.
ND Geology

BSc Geology

Most universities
Gynaecologist
Gynaecologists are medical doctors who specialise in women’s health and reproduction. caring for and treating women during their pre- and post-natal periods; and performing surgical procedures to ensure that babies are safely delivered.
BSc Medical Sciences Universities including:
SUN
UCT
UFS
UP
Wits
Industrial engineers
Industrial engineers are responsible for the design, implementation, operation, improvement and management of high-level systems. Industrial engineers are responsible for the design, implementation, operation, improvement and management of high-level systems. Industrial and manufacturing engineers apply the principles and techniques of engineering, industrial economics and management in order to design efficient production and manufacturing systems.
ND Industrial Engineering

BEng Industrial Engineering

Most universities of technology and universities
IT systems administrator
An IT systems administrator makes sure that the computer systems of a business are running properly. monitoring the efficiency of servers (the central computers that all others connect to), as well as installing, maintaining and upgrading the system. The systems administrator must also ensure that the computers, servers, network and software all work properly together. Systems administrators need to be well organised and have an eye for detail, so that they are better able to identify any potential problems in the system. Once an issue has been spotted, the system administrator then needs to have good problem-solving skills, so that they can correct efficiency concerns or solve other types of problems.
ND Information Technology

BSc Information Systems

ND Computer Systems

BSc Computer Science

Most universities of technology and universities
IT technician
IT technicians (also known as IT repair technicians) repair, maintain and upgrade computers. IT technicians need to have a knowledge of electronics, and be very familiar with the hardware components of computers and how they work. As part of their work, they need to be able to use problem-solving techniques, and run tests and diagnostics to work out where problems lie. IT technicians also need to be familiar with different software operating systems such as Windows, Unix and Mac. They need to keep up-to-date with the latest hardware and software, and often have to attend training courses to learn about new technologies.
ND Information Technology Most universities of technology and universities
Mathematician
Mathematicians analyse mathematical problems. Mathematics can be studied for its own sake. However it is very useful in finding solutions for problems in the fields of industry, engineering, agriculture, ecology, finance and medicine. Mathematicians can work for governments and in private research companies. They may work on teams with engineers, scientists, and other professionals. creating new mathematical formulas and principles, applying them to problems, or determining how a practical problem can be broken down into a mathematical formula. Theoretical mathematicians often teach at a university level, and may be responsible for hundreds of students. They may also work on independent research. Applied mathematicians often are a part of an interdisciplinary team, with other specialists such as economists, engineers, or technicians to provide data and feedback.
BSc Mathematics

BSc Applied Mathematics

Most universities
Mechanical Engineer
Mechanical engineers research, develop, design, manufacture and maintain a variety of machines. Using the concepts of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, mathematics and mechanical design, mechanical engineers create machines that both use and produce power.
ND Mechanical Engineering

BSc Mechanical Engineering

Most universities of technology and universities
Medical physicist
A medical physicist works towards treating diseases and improving health care, by applying physics to medicine.  Medical physicists frequently collaborate with physicians treating cancer patients to determine plans for radiation treatments. They also spend considerable time working toward improving equipment and treatments for diseases, including cancer and heart disease. They look at the role of computers and technology in treating patients and how improving technology can help with imaging for improved diagnosis of conditions. Medical physicists also look at the biological functions of the body, working with this information and technological advances to discover new treatments or improve treatments already in use.
BSc Medical Sciences Universities including:
SUN
UCT
UFS
UP
Wits
Metallurgist
Metallurgists are concerned with the physical and chemical behaviour of metals and alloys. Metallurgists may specialise in chemical, physical or process metallurgy and this determines the type of job they do. Chemical metallurgists are involved in the extraction of metals from ores and they study metal corrosion and fatigue. Physical metallurgists monitor the behaviour of metals under stress and study changes in temperature. Process metallurgists shape and join metals and select the best metal for the job. Work may be in research and development, design and manufacture, production management and quality assurance.
BEng Metallurgical Engineering

ND Metallurgical Engineering

Most universities of technology and universities
Meteorologist
Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere. A meteorologist analyses and studies weather conditions. A research meteorologist studies more specific areas of weather like severe weather or climate change. They can also develop tools like radar or weather models to help other meteorologists in their jobs. applies various mathematical formulas and other complex scientific techniques to forecasts weather conditions. They also safeguard air travellers by warning against any potential threats that may occur due to adverse weather changes. Other working activities are aimed at in-depth research and data collection from satellite images, radars, remote sensors and weather stations all over the world. The duties of a meteorologist include coordinating information and investigating subjects like the physics of clouds, changes in rainfall, humidity and the relation between abrupt climatic changes and global warming.
BSc Meteorology UP

Most other universities offer BSc courses with appropriate subjects.

Microbiologist
Microbiologists investigate the growth, structure, development, and other characteristics of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. Microbiologists work in a wide variety of settings, although the majority of work is laboratory-based. Microbiologists isolate and make cultures of microorganisms, identify their characteristics, and observe their reactions to chemicals and other kinds of stimuli. They also study how microorganisms develop and reproduce as well as their distribution in nature. Many microbiologists work for universities, where they teach and do research. Others work at medical centers or in private industry. Some work for government agencies. Although their jobs have different aspects and responsibilities, most microbiologists do some research or laboratory work. They use special equipment to study microorganisms including light microscopes, electron microscopes, centrifuges, glass tubes, slides, and computers.Biotechnologists use living cells, the products of cells, and micro-organisms to make a variety of products and processes that benefit people.
BSc Biotechnology

ND Biotechnology

BSc Microbiology

BSc (Agric) degree, majoring in Microbiology

Most universities of technology and universities
Mining engineer
Mining engineers are experts in mining, engineering (rock, civil, mechanical and electrical engineering), geology, mine ventilation and surveying. Mining engineers work together with geologists, mine surveyors and metallurgical engineers to find, assess viability, and mine new ore deposits. They also develop and manage new mining equipment and processes, carry out research on mining-related and environmental issues, and work towards improving working conditions on the mine and the health and safety of the workers. Although mining engineers usually spend most of their time in the office, they also visit mining sites to supervise projects.
ND Mining Engineering

BEng Mining Engineering

UNISA

UJ

UNISA

UP

Wits.

Network administrator
Network administrators are responsible for making sure that computer networks are running correctly. The network administrator has to take care of the administration, management and maintenance of a computer network. They also to control who has access to the server (or central computer) and manage upgrades and the installation of new software. This is a highly technical job, and is mainly performed on a computer. They need to have excellent knowledge of various operating systems (such as Windows and Linux).
ND Information Technology

BSc Information Systems

ND Computer Systems

BSc Computer Science

Most universities of technology and universities
Neurologist
Neurologists are medical doctors who specialise in diagnosing and treating diseases and conditions of the nervous system Neurologists examine the nerves of the head and neck, the strength and movement of muscles, balance, reflexes and sensation. They also test cognitive abilities, such as memory, language and speech. They carry out diagnostic tests, such as CAT scans, MRI scans, MRA scans, EEG, EMG, NCV and lumbar punctures. A neurologist’s primary job responsibility is to diagnose and treat nervous system disorders and diseases by administering a variety of tests which will tell him the nature of the problem so he can prescribe medication and drugs. He may also closely examine blood tests to identify problems, study x-rays of the brain or spine or refer the patient to a specialist for additional care.
BSc Medical Sciences Universities including:
SUN
UCT
UFS
UP
Wits
Occupational health and safety specialist
Occupational health and safety specialists specialise in certain areas. For example, environmental protection officers assess programmes that impact the environment, such as the storage and handling of hazardous waste. Health physicists monitor the manufacture, handling, and disposal of radioactive material. Industrial hygienists test the workplace for health hazards such as asbestos, pesticides, or communicable diseases. Although there are a number of specialties within this field, every one of them is concerned with identifying hazardous conditions that affect workers, property, the environment, and the general public. A thorough survey is conducted in the workplace to test equipment, pollutants, potential accident and health hazards, and observe workers and equipment. Once the hazard is determined, they focus on ways to eliminate it. They also help companies develop new safety practices and conduct training sessions for management.
Oceanographer
Oceanographers are scientists who study the sea in order to understand oceans and the living creatures within them. Oceanography is the study of the sea and all its different facets, such as the sea floor, marine life, ocean currents, the physical and chemical composition of the water and also the air above the ocean. Oceanographers also study waves, geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries.
ND Oceanography

BSc Ocean & Atmosphere Science

Most universities of technology and universities
Ophthalmologist
Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. Ophthalmologists are both surgical and medical specialists.
BSc Medical Sciences Universities including:
SUN
UCT
UFS
UP
Wits
Optometrist
Optometry is a healthcare profession concerned with the eyes and related structures, as well as vision, visual systems, and vision information processing in humans. Optometrists aim to give patients clear and efficient vision. They measure the efficiency of their patient’s eyes and where necessary, take steps to improve or prevent deterioration of vision. They are able to prescribe spectacles or contact lenses to rectify or alleviate visual defects. Optometrists are skilled at detecting problems with vision, abnormal eye conditions and diseases of the eyes or related muscles, such as diabetic retinopathy. Clients with these kinds of difficulties are referred to an ophthalmologist. In addition, some optometrists may also own or manage a practice, and be involved in managing staff; supervising and training junior staff; managing the retail aspects of spectacles, contact lenses and other vision care products; and liaising with sales representatives from vision care product suppliers.
BSc Optometry

ND Optometry

Most universities of technology and universities
Paediatrician
Paediatricians are medical doctors who specialise in diagnosing and treating illnesses, injuries and promoting the physical, mental and psychological health of children from birth to adolescence.Typical daily activities of a paediatrician includes meeting with children and parents and examining patients; sending off samples for diagnosis; making a prognosis, along with other health professionals; recommending a programme of action including surgery, drug administration or other forms of therapy; writing reports on patients; doing research; and keeping up to date with latest developments. Vital skills needed to succeed in this profession include empathy with children, a friendly personality and the ability to reassure parents.
BSc Medical Sciences Universities including:
SUN
UCT
UFS
UP
Wits
Paleontologist
Paleontology is the study of fossils all life forms, from bacteria to whales. In contrast, archaeology is the study of the fossil record of humans and their relatives.
Pharmacist
Pharmacists are medical professionals who are involved in dispensing, manufacturing and preparing medication. In a retail or clinic setting, pharmacists prepare medication according to a doctor’s prescription, and check that the dosage and combination of medicines are safe to use. In a hospital environment, pharmacists need to monitor patients’ responses to medications and ensure that the correct medications are being provided. Due to the fact that pharmacists are often the most accessible medical professionals, they are becoming more involved in monitoring certain conditions (such as diabetes and high blood pressure) and helping with disease management. Some pharmacists work in the manufacturing industry, where they ensure that medicines are being made correctly and are safe to use. They may also be involved in creating new products and checking that these are safe and effective. Pharmacists form the link between pharmaceutical manufacturers and medical doctors, between doctors and patients, and between patients and their communities.
BSc Pharmacy UWC
RU
NMMU
NWU
UKZN
WitsUL and TUT jointly
Physicist
Physicists are scientists who study the theories that explain how the physical world behaves. In particular, they explore the properties of matter and energy. Physics is the study of the fundamental properties of matter, ranging from the microscopic world of subatomic and molecular particles, to the macroscopic world of cosmology and astrophysics.The two main types of physicists are experimental physicists or theoretical physicists. Experimental physicists work in laboratories to test the theories of physics, whereas theoretical physicists develop the theories to support the practical work. These two types of physicists often work together to form and test new scientific theories. There are a variety of interest areas within physics, and many areas which physicists may work in, such as environmental science, medical physics, teaching/lecturing, research, and cosmology or astrophysics (studying the planets, stars and other substances and bodies in the universe). Working conditions for physicists usually include laboratories, offices or classrooms. In terms of equipment, physicists may use computers to assist in computing theoretical ideas.
BSc Physics Including:
NMMU
NWU
UCT
UFS
UJ
UNISA
US
UV
UWC
Wits
Physiotherapist
Physiotherapists treat people for sicknesses, injuries and disabilities. They help people to recover from illness or injury or to cope with disability and lead independent and fulfilling lives.Physiotherapists examine patients to evaluate how well the different body systems are working (such as respiratory, musculoskeletal, nervous and circulatory systems) and find out the causes of their pain. They treat patients using massage, exercise and equipment producing infrared radiation and ultrasound. They also use thermotherapy (heat treatment) and electrotherapy. Physiotherapists give advice on coping with chronic (ongoing) pain and illness. They use exercise therapy, electrotherapy, massaging and mobilisation with a view to restoring or promoting the normal physical functioning of the individual. Skills required for this profession include good communication and people skills, empathy and patience, as well as physical strength and dexterity.
Podiatrist
Podiatrists are health care professionals who use their knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the human foot and legs to promote and maintain healthy feet.Podiatrists give practical health advice and may recommend or custom-make therapeutic biomechanical devices, such as in-shoe devices (orthotics) and inner soles to suit individual patients. Podiatrists treat conditions such as knock-knees, inwardly turned feet, skin infections (such as athlete’s foot), diabetes, arthritis, circulation problems, and sports injuries. They also treat foot and leg disorders in children, older people, or disabled people. They may refer the patient to a medical specialist, if they find symptoms of other problems.
Psychiatrist
Psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialise in diagnosing, treating and preventing medical illness that can lead to psychological or mental problems. Treatment can include medication. Psychiatrists frequently work as part of a multi-disciplinary team composed of psychiatrists, psychologists, nursing, and other disciplines to provide holistic or comprehensive medical and counselling services to patients.
BSc Medical Sciences Universities including:
SUN
UCT
UFS
UP
Wits
Psychologist
Psychologists study and assess human behaviour to help people become emotionally and socially healthier and better adjusted, within themselves and their environment.Clinical psychology is the largest specialty area within psychology. This field is focused on the assessment, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental disorders. While many clinical psychologists perform psychotherapy with clients, it is important to note that it is not the only career path within clinical psychology. Other options include teaching at university level, conducting research and administering public programmes. A psychologist may work in the community or be involved in preventive work. They may teach people problem-solving skills or train community helpers. There are several categories of psychology, apart from clinical psychology, including counselling (advising people on how to deal with problems of everyday living), educational (resolving the learning and behavioural problems of students), industrial psychology (applying psychological principles and research methods to the workplace to improve productivity and the quality of work-life).
Quantity surveyor
Quantity surveyors control the financial aspects of a building and construction project, and these professionals are often known as the accountants of the building industry.Quantity surveyors work as part of a multi-disciplinary team including architects, engineers and developers. As part of this team, they must make sure that projects are planned and completed according to a set budget, while still reaching a high standard of quality. Quantity surveyors often draw up construction contracts, settle payments and resolve disputes. They also need to consistently evaluate progress of the project, and provide feedback. Quantity surveyors are often based in an office environment, where they are likely to work with computer tools that help them in their job. Their work also involves being present on actual building sites, to ensure that things are being carried out correctly.
ND Construction Management and Quantity Surveying

BSc Quantity Surveying

Most universities of technology and universities
Radiation therapist
Radiation therapists provide radiation therapy to patients as prescribed by a radiologist according to established practices and standards, usually in the treatment of particular types of cancer. Radiation therapists may assist in dosimetry procedures and tumour localisation, and administer prescribed doses of radiation to specific body parts, using radiation therapy equipment according to established practices and standards. They also have the responsibility to accurately position patients for treatment, according to prescription, and to enter data into the computer and set controls to operate and adjust equipment and regulate dosage. Radiation therapists conduct most treatment sessions independently, in accordance with the long-term treatment plan and under the general direction of the patient’s doctor. They check radiation therapy equipment to ensure proper operation, observe and reassure patients during treatment and report unusual reactions to the doctor or turn equipment off if unexpected adverse reactions occur.
ND Radiography

BSc Radiography

Most universities of technology and universities
Radiographer
Radiographers use high-energy radioactive substances or rays such as X-rays or ultrasound to diagnose and treat people with diseases or injuries on behalf of qualified medical doctors or dentists. Radiography is the use of X-rays, other radiation media or ultrasound. Radiographers are important members of the medical team. They make use of complex and expensive equipment to produce images of the human body. They are also responsible for the wellbeing of patients during their examination or treatment. Radiographers produce X-ray images of the body and its internal structures and treat abnormalities (mainly cancer) by using radiation.
Veterinarian
Veterinarians (vets) provide healthcare for a range of animals, including pets, livestock, zoo animals, wild life, sporting and lab animals. Vets diagnose animals, provide prescriptions and give medication, vaccinate against disease, as well as treat and dress wounds. They also set fractures, perform surgery, autopsies and euthanasia, and assist at births. Vets typically choose to work with either small animals (cats and dogs) or large animals (such as horses and cows), and may specialise in a particular area, such as poultry. In a research role, veterinarians test whether or not food from farm animals is suitable to be eaten, and may investigate new ways of treating and preventing disease. They may also advise on the development of new products, and provide input on rural development.
BVSc Veterinary Science Only at UP, (Onderstepoort)
Zoologist
Zoology is the scientific study of animals (living organisms excluding plants, fungi, viruses and bacteria) and their relationship with their habitats (environments). Zoologists are biologists who study the origin, classification, characteristics, structure, growth and development of animals. Zoologists are sometimes known as animal scientists or animal biologists. Like botany and microbiology, zoology is a major division of biology. As this field is so broad, zoologists usually specialise in a particular type of animal or animal family, or in certain aspects of animal life such as genetics or animal classification.
BSc Zoology Most Universities